Saturday, March 23, 2013
Adieu... to all students of Batch 2012...
Fresh Batches of ISC starts from 1st April 2013...
Timings: 5:00 pm to 6:15 pm...
All other information to be given later in the class...
Class planner XII schedule can be checked here...
Posted by Admin at 5:11 PM
Tuesday, November 13, 2012
IIT JEE has been scrapped and has been replaced by JEE Main 2013 and JEE Advanced 2013. Both of the exams have to be given in order to get admission in IITs. The last date to apply is 15th December, 2013. To know more about the new exams and selection process, the following link should be visited:
The Application Forms of the first level exam, JEE Main 2013 have been released and will be filled online only on :
The IIT JEE 2013 Application Form are available both OFFLINE and ONLINE.
However the candidates who are purchasing OFFLINE Application Form must take care of the following and purchase the correct Application Form:
- All the female candidates should purchase the Application Form with PINK Envelope having cost of Rs. 200/-.
- Male Candidates belonging to PD/ST/SC categories should purchase the Application Form with LIGHT BLUEenvelope having cost of Rs. 1000/-.
- Male candidates belonging to OBC/General categories have to purchase the Application Form with GREYenvelope having cost of Rs. 1800/-.
However, the candidates who are apply through ONLINE IIT JEE 2013 Application Form would have the following payment options:
- All the female candidates can fill the ONLINE IIT JEE 2013 Application Form free of cost.
- Male Candidates of PD/ST/SC category will have to pay Rs. 800/- for Application Form.
- Male Candidates of OBC/General Category will have to pay Rs.1600/- for Application Form.
- The candidates who want to apply DUBAI CITY as the examination center would have to pay US$ 200 for IIT JEE 2013 Application Form.
Procedure to fill ONLINE IIT JEE 2013 Application Form:
- Candidates can go to the Official websites of IIT JEE 2013 and follow the step by step given instructions to fill the ONLINE Application Form.
- The ONLINE Application Form Portal will be open from the last week of October 2013 to the second week of December 2013.
- Candidates applying via ONLINE Application Form can make payment ONLY via BANK CHALLAN at the Banks given in the list given in the IIT JEE 2013 Brochure.
After completing the ONLINE Application Form candidates should take a print out of the IIT JEE 2013 Application Form and
- Sign the Application Form at the place specified
- Get the Application Form signed by Guardian/Parent
- Paste a passport sized photograph at the specified place in Application Form.
- Take a print out of the ADDRESS for correspondence with Candidate, paste it on the envelope of Application Form and mail it to the Chairman, JEE, Zonal IIT till the second week of December 2013.
Procedure to fill OFFLINE IIT JEE 2013 Application Form:
- The sale of the OFFLINE Application Form will be done at the Bank Branches mentioned in IIT JEE 2013 Brochure between the Second week of November 2013 to First week of December 2013.
- Candidates should take care while filling the OFFLINE Application Form as per the color of the envelopes for different categories.
- The OFFLINE Application Form will be in OMR readable format therefore utmost care should be taken while filling them and no stray marks, whitener, smudging, cutting, tearing or wrinkling should be done.
- The candidates should DARKEN the CORRECT BUBBLE on the IIT JEE 2013 Application Form with BLACK/BLUE ball point pen only and no ink/felt/gel pen should be used.
- Candidates are not allowed to make any corrections in the filled Bubbles and the data filled in the bubbles will be the final one. So, if there is any inconsistency between the form filled data and the data filled in the bubbles the data in the bubbles will be considered whether it is right or wrong.
- Candidate should fill the application form according to the step by step instructions given in application form. Failing to do so may lead to cancellation of candidature.
- Candidate should sign application form himself/herself, get form signed by parent/guardian, paste the photograph and attach the required enclosures.
- While putting the IIT JEE 2013 Application Form in the envelope :
- Make sure that all the relevant information has been written on the envelope.
- The form has been folded only along the dotted lines and the Barcode and application number are visible from the window on the envelope.
The last date for sending the IIT JEE 2013 Application Form complete in all respects to the respective offices of Zonal IITs is the second week of December 2013.
No acknowledgement will be sent regarding the successful submission of application form; however the candidates can examine their application status on the website/via SMS.
JEE Main 2013 will be new engineering entrance exam which will be conducted in place of AIEEE and will be organized by CBSE for admission in NITs, IIITs and Other Centrally Funded Institutions. If any State also wants to do admissions on its basis in the State colleges, separate merit lists will be made available to them
Mode of JEE Main 2013:
The Paper 1 which will be organized for B. E. / B. tech. aspirants will be conducted in two modes – Offline mode which will be pen and paper based test and JEE Main 2013 Paper 2 which will be for the B. Arch aspirants and will be conducted in Online Mode which will be a computer based test.
JEE Main 2013 Exam Pattern:
Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics
Offline & Online
Part 1 – Mathematics
Part 2 – Aptitude Test
Part 3 – Drawing Test
Drawing Aptitude Questions
JEE Main 2013 Paper Requirements:
Paper 2 – B. Arch / B. Planning (At institutes other than IITs)
Paper 1 – All other UG courses
JEE Main 2013 Exam Schedule:
9.30 am to 12.30 pm
Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics
2.00 pm to 5.00 pm
Part 1 – Mathematics
Part 2 – Aptitude Test
Part 3 – Drawing Test
Online JEE Main 2013 Exam Schedule:
8/04/2013 to 25/04/2013
Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics
1st Session: 9.00 am to 12.00 pm
2nd Session: 2.00 pm to 5.00 pm
JEE Main 2013 Choice of Language of Question Paper:
The language of question paper will be English or Hindi. The candidates, who have opted for JEE Main 2013 Exam Centers in Gujarat, can also opt for Gujarati Language Question Paper.
The choice for the question paper language has to be specified while filling the Application Form and it can’t be changed at any later stage.
JEE Main 2013 Exam Centers:
All the major towns and cities of India will have JEE Main exam centers. The candidates are advised to choose the centers wisely as once filled the choices cannot be altered at any later stage.
The usage of calculator or other communication aids is not allowed in the JEE Main 2013 Exam Centers.
JEE Main 2013 Eligibility:
Date of Birth:
- Only those candidates are eligible for JEE Main 2013 whose date of birth is on or after 1st October, 1988.
- The candidates of SC, ST and PwD categories have been granted a relaxation of 5 years in JEE Main 2013 Eligibility Criteria for age. Thus they must have been born or after 1st October, 1983 in order to be eligible for JEE Main 2013.
Year of Passing the Qualifying Examination (QE):
- All the candidates inclusive of those who have passed their qualifying exam in the year of 2011 or 2012 and who are appearing in it in 2013 will be eligible as per the JEE Main 2013 Eligibility Criteria.
- The candidates who have appeared in QE in 2010 but passed it in 2011 are also not eligible for the exam.
Number of Attempts: 03 for all candidates.
JEE Main 2013 Application Form:
- The applications have to be filled online only. The Online form filling process will be completed on the official website of JEE Main 2013 from 8/11/2012.
- JEE Main 2013 Application Form Fee:
For candidates who have opted for exam center in India:
Either JEE Main Paper 1 or JEE Main Paper - 2
Both JEE Main Paper 1 and Paper 2
JEE Main 2013 Application Form Fee for Foreign Exam Centers:
Either Paper 1 or Paper 2 of JEE Main 2013
Both Paper 1 and Paper 2 of JEE Main 2013
- The computer generated JEE Main 2013 Confirmation Page must be signed by the candidate as well as by the Parent or Guardian and the candidate must paste a Photograph, write the address on the specified space and send it to the following Address before the 26th December 2012 by Speed /Registered Post:
JEE (Main) Secretariat,
Central Board of Secondary Education,
PS – 1 – 2, Institutional Area,
Delhi – 110092.
JEE Main 2013 Admit Card:
The JEE Main 2013 Admit Card will be made available on the website of JEE Main 2013 - http://jeemain.nic.in from 1st March, 2013.
- The Qualifying Exam Roll Number has to be submitted by the candidates who have not submitted it while applying for JEE Main, before downloading the JEE Main 2013 Admit Card.
JEE Main 2013 Reservation of Seats:
- The JEE Main 2013 Reservation of Seats will reserve some seats in every participating institution for the candidates of reserved categories.
The categories that will be considered for reservation are as follows:
- Non – Creamy Layer OBC (NCL - OBC).
- Scheduled Tribes (ST).
- Scheduled Castes (SC).
- Persons with Disability (PwD).
- Date of Offline JEE Main 2013 Exam: 7/04/2013
- Date of Online Exam: 8/04/2013 to 25/04/2013
- Online Application Submission: 8/11/2012 to 15/12/2012
- Last date of JEE Main 2013 Online Application: 15/12/2012
- Last Date of Conformation Page receipt: 26/12/2012
- Admit Card issue: 1/03/2013
- JEE Main 2013 Result declaration: 7/05/2013
- All India Rank Declaration: 7/07/2013
- Rank Card Availability on website: 8/07/2013
Improvement of Marks for JEE Main 2013:
The JEE Main 2013 candidates who have passed class XII exam in 2012 can also appear for re – exam in all the subjects so as to increase their percentile. These candidates will have an option to either submit the 2012 marks and then be eligible as per the old eligibility criteria for IIT admission i.e. 60% (GEN) and 55% for others or submit their improvement percentile and be eligible as per the top 20 percentile window.
Posted by Admin at 8:18 AM
Sunday, November 4, 2012
Specific Heat Capacity Of Gases
Specific heat of a gas is numerically equal to the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of unit mass of gas by 1°C. In order to raise the temperature of unit mass of a gas through 1°C more heat will be required if the gas was kept at constant pressure than when it is at constant volume.
(i) Molar Specific heat capacity at constant Volume: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of gas by 1 °C at constant volume is called the molar specific heat and it is represented by Cv.
Cv = (ΔQ/mΔt)v = constant
By first law of thermodynamics ΔQ = ΔU + W
But W = 0 for isochoric process, then ΔQ = ΔU
by definition of specific heat ΔQ = nCvΔT
Where CV is the specific heat (for 1 mole of gas), then ΔU = nCvΔT
The relation ΔU = nCvΔT, is used to find the change in internal energy of the system and is valid for any process where a temperature change has taken place.
Consider two isotherms on the P-V diagram:
Process 1 –> 2 represents an isochoric process
Process 1 –> 3 represents an isobaric process
In both processes the temperature has changes from T1 to T2 as 2 and 3 lie on the same isotherm. Thus change in internal energ
U1–>2 = U1–>3 = nCvΔT
(ii) Molar Specific heat capacity at constant Pressure: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mol of gas by 1°C keeping its pressure constant, is called molar specific heat at constant pressure and it is represented by Cp,
Cp = (ΔQ/mΔT)P = constant
(iii) Relation between Cp and Cv: For an isobaric process by definition
From first law ΔQ = ΔU + W
=> nCPΔT = nCVΔT + W [∴ ΔU = nCVΔT for any process]
For isobaric process
W = PΔV = nRΔT nCPΔT = nCVΔT + nRΔT
=> CP = CV + R or CP - CV = R (Meyer’s relation)
(iv) Relation between specific heat (CP and CV) and degrees of freedom: If f is the number of degree of freedom of a gas molecule then the internal energy of n moles of that gas is given by
U = f × 1/2 nRT (from law of equipartition of energy)
(∴ U = f/2 kT = f/2 R/N T (for n moles) = nN × f/2 R/N T = n f/2 RT)
=> dU = f × 1/2 nRdT
Also dU = nCVdT,
So, nCVdT = f × 1/2 nRdTf/2 R
but CP = CV + R
∴ CP = (f/2 f/2 + 1)R. This is the relation between specific heat ratio and degree of freedom.
(v) Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal gas: As defined earlier in adiabatic process ΔQ = 0
For a system containing an ideal gas adiabatic process can happen in two ways
(i) if the system boundary is adiabatic
(ii) if the system boundary is diathermic but the process takes place so fast that their is no time for the transfer of the heat. For example, Propagation of sound in air.
For an adiabatic process as shall be proved
PV? = a constant, here g = CP/ CV. ? is known as adiabatic constant
Since PV = nRT for an ideal gas
P = nRT/V so,
(nRT/V)Vg = Constant ∴ TVg–1 = a constant
Proof: Let n moles of an ideal gas expand adiabatically by a small amount ΔV.
By first law ΔQ = ΔU + PΔV
As ΔQ = 0 we have ΔU = –PΔV
But U = nCvΔT
So, nΔT = –(P/Cv)ΔV …(i)
From the ideal gas law (after differentiating) , PΔV = VΔP = nRΔT
Replacing R by its equal, CP - CV leads to this, nΔT = PΔV + VΔP/Cp – Cv …(ii)
equating (1) and (2) with a little algebra leads to
ΔP/P + (Cp/Cv) ΔV/V = 0 Cp/Cv = g
and integrating we have, ln P + g In V = a constant,
or PVg = a constant, hence proved.
Again g = Cp/Cv = Cv + R/CV = 1 + R/Cv = 1 + R/(1/2 fR) = 1 + 2/f
(vi) Work done in an adiabatic process (P1V1T1) to (P2V2T2)
For adiabatic process, W = –ΔU = –n CvΔT
From ideal gas equation P1V1 – P2V2 = nR (T1 – T2) = – nRT
W = Cv(P1V1 – P2V2)/R(P1V1 – P2V2)/?–1 = nR(T1 – T2)/–1
(vii) The table shows the values of f, Cv, Cp and g for different gasses:
Nature of gas
Degree of freedom
f = (T+R+V)
3+0+0 = 3
3+2+0 = 5
3+2+0 = 5
3+2+1 = 6
Note: At room temperature the energy associated with vibrational motion is negligible in comparison to translational and rotational KE.
Expressions For ΔU, W, And ΔQ For Different Process
Relation between thermodynamic variables
Work Done (W)
Heat Exchange (ΔQ)
W = 2.303 nRT log10 (V2/V1)
ΔQ = 2.303 nRT
(No heat exchange)
PVg = constant
W = (P1V1 – P2V2)/(g–1) = nR(T1– T2)/(g-1)
ΔQ = 0
(V = constant)
W = 0
ΔQ = n CV ΔT*
(Use definition of Cv)
(P = Constant)
W = P Δ V = P(V2 –V2)
W = nR (T2 –T1)
ΔQ = n CP ΔT*
(Use definition of Cp)
Posted by Admin at 8:58 AM